A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY

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Lot 14
A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA
BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY

HK$ 3,000,000 - 4,000,000
US$ 390,000 - 520,000
A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA
BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY
95.4 cm (37 1/2 in.) high

Footnotes

  • Superbly carved with full-bodied lotuses in bloom beside the Bodhisattva's compassionate expression. His downward gaze instructs the eye across crisply defined jewelry and sashes towards his right hand extended in charity. In wonderful detail, the hems of his lower garment terminate with frilled edges conveying a weight and texture to the cloth otherwise diaphanous and rarely distinguished on Pala sculpture.

    Grewenig eloquently discusses the piece's subject matter and style in its recent exhibition catalog:

    "Until the 10th century AD, many large Pala steles of Avalokiteshvara show the Bodhisattva in a standing position...In the 11th and 12th centuries, however, the form of representation with two arms and seated in a relaxed position (lalitasana) prevails. This form is referred to in contemporary meditation and ritual texts (sadhana) as Khasaparna Lokeshvara ("the Lord of the world who glides through the air [to save all creatures]"). Of the four companions named in the texts, two are depicted here: to his right the youthful Sudhana with a book in the crook of his arm and to his left the plump figure of Hayagriva, who is the personification of a protection spell used by Avalokiteshvara. The wrathful characteristics of Hayagriva are elaborated in great detail: for example the wide open eyes, furrowed eyebrows, broad nose and hair standing up like flames. Buddhist steles from the mature Pala period with such a wealth of decoration across the entire surface usually come from Munger or Bhagalpur districts in Bihar, or from Bengal."

    The Lord of Compassion is joined by the Five Tathagathas emerging from swirling lotus vines above him. Their torsos are robust and prana-filled. Each displays their characteristic mudra that references a major moment in Shakyamuni's life, often occurring at a pilgrimage site with the Pala kingdom's realm. Each also embodies Shakyamuni's perfection of the five poisonous emotions that perpetuate karma and suffering – ignorance, pride, anger, desire, and jealously – reminding us of their shortcomings.

    Published
    Stephen von der Schulenburg, Museum Angewandte Kunst, Buddha: 108 Encounters, Frankfurt, 2015, p.49, fig.10.
    Meinrad Maria Grewenig and Eberhard Rist (eds), Buddha - 2000 Years of Buddhist Art: 232 Masterpieces, Völklingen, 2016, pp.110-1, no.30.

    Exhibited
    Buddha - 2000 Years of Buddhist Art: 232 Masterpieces, Völklinger Hütte, Völklinger, Germany, 25 June 2016 – 5 March 2017.

    Provenance
    Private Collection, United Kingdom, 1970s
    Christie's, Amsterdam, 18 October 2005, lot 38
    Private West Coast Collection
    Christie's, New York, 21 March 2012, lot 739


    黑石觀音碑
    比哈爾或孟加拉地區,帕拉時期,十一/十二世紀
    高95.4釐米(37 1/2英吋)

    3,000,000-4,000,000港元

    觀世音菩薩呈寂靜慈悲之面像,左右兩旁綻放著碩大的蓮花。他目光微向右下方,滿身瓔珞飾帶雕琢精細,右手向下施予願印。下衣如透明薄紗幾乎難以辨別,乃帕拉石雕的典型特徵,此處僅在腳踝處呈現精美的波紋狀邊緣,傳遞出質地與重量感。

    Grewenig在最近的展覽目錄中討論了該作品的主題和風格:

    「公元十世紀以前,帕拉大型塑像多以站立姿勢呈現觀世音菩薩...然而,在十一世紀和十二世紀,刻畫雙臂觀音輕鬆自然呈遊戲坐姿的做法則更為盛行。 這種形式在當代的冥想及儀式文獻中被稱為空行觀音(「划過空中[拯救眾生]的世主」)。 在文獻中指出的四名侍從中,兩名在此尊佛碑上出現:菩薩右側相貌年輕的善財童子以手臂夾書,左邊則是體態豐滿的馬頭明王,他是大悲觀音菩薩保護咒的化現。馬頭明王的憤怒特徵無不被細緻地刻畫出來,例如圓瞪的雙眼,緊皺的眉頭,寬闊的鼻子和火焰狀怒髮。 裝飾如此豐富華麗的創作於帕拉成熟時期的佛教石碑通常來自比哈爾邦的蒙格埃爾或帕格爾布爾地區,或者來自孟加拉地區。」

    五方佛於藤蔓中呈現在觀世音菩薩上方。 他們身軀健壯,且充滿「生命之氣」。每尊五方佛都施以其特有的手印,分別象徵釋迦牟尼一生中的不同重要時刻,這些重要事件多發生在帕拉王朝領土以內的朝聖地點 。五方佛也象徵釋迦牟尼所征服的五毒,指貪、嗔、癡、慢、疑五種情緒,乃痛苦與無知的根源。

    著錄
    Stephen von der Schulenburg,法蘭克福應用藝術博物館, Buddha: 108 Encounters, 法蘭克福,2015年,頁49,10號。
    Meinrad Maria Grewenig and Eberhard Rist (編),Buddha - 2000 Years of Buddhist Art: 232 Masterpieces,弗爾克林根, 2016年,頁110-1,30號。

    展覽
    Buddha - 2000 Years of Buddhist Art: 232 Masterpieces,Völklinger Hütte ,弗爾克林根, 德國, 2016年6月25日–2017年3月5日。

    來源
    英國私人珍藏,上世紀七十年代
    佳士得,阿姆斯特丹,2005年10月18日,拍品38號
    美國西海岸私人珍藏
    佳士得,紐約,2012年3月21日,拍品739號
Contacts
A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY
A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY
A BLACKSTONE STELE OF KHASARPANA LOKESHVARA BIHAR OR BENGAL, PALA PERIOD, 11TH/12TH CENTURY
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